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coursework英國范文:Encoding and decoding model

時間:2019-04-19 11:39來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
Encoding and decoding model編解碼模型 20世紀初,傳播科學理論把受眾作為信息傳播的被動受眾,對傳播效果的研究仍然主要集中在傳播系統本身,但在現實中,電視節目制作者發現他們的信息沒有被
Encoding and decoding model編解碼模型
20世紀初,傳播科學理論把受眾作為信息傳播的被動受眾,對傳播效果的研究仍然主要集中在傳播系統本身,但在現實中,電視節目制作者發現他們的信息沒有被受眾正確理解,電視節目制作者希望采取一系列措施促進溝通的“有效性”。然而,基于這些傳統的傳播理論并沒有幫助改善傳播效果。在此背景下,人們提出了許多新的通信理論,霍爾的編解碼理論是最具代表性和權威性的理論之一。在通信科學中,所謂的編碼是指將信息轉換成可以通信的符號或代碼。解碼是從通信符號中提取信息。霍爾將電視譯碼信息的觀眾位置分為三個部分。
In the early 1900s, the theory of communication sciences took audience as passive audience of information communication, the research on communication effect still mainly focused on the communication system itself, but in reality, television producers found that their information was not properly understood by audience, TV program makers wanted to take a series of measures to promote the "effectiveness" of communication. However, based on these traditional communication theories did not help to improve communication results. In this context, many new communication theories have been put forward, Hall's encoding and decoding theory is one of the most representative and authoritative theory. In communication sciences, the so-called encoding means converting information into symbols or codes which can be communicated. Decoding is to extract information from communication symbols. Hall divides the position of viewers for TV decoding information into three parts.
1. Dominant-hegemonic position支配霸權地位
支配-霸權地位是指電視觀眾在支配碼范圍內的解碼實踐,他們直接從電視新聞廣播或時事節目中理解意義,并根據信息編碼的參考碼來解碼信息(霍爾,1973)。霍爾稱這種理想的電視傳輸模式為“完全透明的通信”。簡單來說,主宰地位是觀眾的解碼位置與電視制作者的編碼位置或專業編碼位置完全相同,編碼和解碼一致。
Dominant - hegemonic position refers to decoding practice of TV viewers within the scope of dominant codes, they make sense of meaning directly from TV news broadcasts or current affairs program, and according to the reference codes of information encoding to decode information (Hall, 1973). Hall calls this ideal television transmission mode "fully transparent communication". In simple terms, dominant - hegemonic position is that the decoding position of viewers and the encoding position of television producers or position of professional codes are exactly the same, encoding and decoding accord.
2. Negotiated position談判立場
霍爾解釋說,電視觀眾一方面承認主流意識形態的權威,另一方面,他們也強調自己的特殊情況,二者之間有一個充滿矛盾的協商過程(霍爾,1973年)。霍爾舉了一個例子,看電視新聞的工人可以同意新聞的觀點——工資上漲會導致通貨膨脹,但他們仍然參加了一場高工資的罷工。
Hall explains that television audience on the one hand recognizes the authority of dominant ideology, but on the other hand, they also emphasize their particular circumstances, there is a consultation process full of contradictions between the two (Hall, 1973). Hall cites an example, workers watching television news can agree with the point of view of news - a wage increase will lead to inflation, but they still participate in a strike for higher wages.
3. Oppositional position 位置
Hall believes that TV viewers may fully understand the twists and turns of changes of literal meaning and connotation that language brings, but in a completely opposite way to decode the information" (Hall, 1973). This means that television viewers can understand the "code" of TV words, but they choose their own decoding position, based on their experience and background to interpret entirely differently from what coders mean.
Significance of Hall’s theory lies in that he has abandoned the point of view that in the past, audience was believed to be only passive in decoding television program, he believes that based on understanding of television text and understanding a coder's intent, audience can be according to their needs and take the initiative to take a dominant, or negotiated, or oppositional position to decode television program, acceptance of television viewers is not passive, a sender's own interpretation does not mean a recipient's own interpretation, information transmitted is not smooth and intact all the way enter the concept of recipients. Decoding in this essay is a social activity and a social process of negotiation, audience can take any attitude to deal with it.
 
References
Hall, S. (1973). Encoding and decoding in the television discourse. University of Birmingham.
 


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