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新西蘭APA格式assignment代寫:The food people eat reflects who they a

時間:2019-04-29 14:38來源:未知 作者:anne 點擊:
導讀:本文是 新西蘭專業的assignment,要求是需要提供支持你立場的背景理論。創建一個支持你的理論立場的論點。通過展示與當代(西方)生活方式的相關性來結束您的立場。要使用的APA參考

導讀:本文是 新西蘭專業的assignment,要求是需要提供支持你立場的背景理論。創建一個支持你的理論立場的論點。通過展示與當代(西方)生活方式的相關性來結束您的立場。要使用的APA參考。

1.0 Introduction介紹
食品消費產生的收入占酒店收入的很大一部分,如何為消費者提供合適的食品,給消費者一個良好的消費體驗,對酒店獲得理想收入有積極影響(林毛,2015)。為了實現這一目標,酒店管理者必須深入了解顧客在食品消費中的心理、行為、動機等方面的信息。因此,一些學者認為,消費者吃食物不僅是為了避免饑餓,而且是為了滿足個人喜好,反映自己的品味或社會地位,以及滿足其他需求(Bourdieu 1984)。一方面,一些內部和外部因素影響著消費者對食物的選擇,另一方面,消費者的選擇也可以是一種有效的反應,反映出他們的個性、愛好、社會地位、文化甚至民族信息(Hallam和Baum,1996年)。雖然其他學者持相反的觀點,但他們認為人們對食物的選擇不能反映個性的信息特征(林毛,2015)。相反的結論可能會使酒店相關員工感到困惑,因為他們需要通過觀察人們所吃的食物來了解消費者的食物消費行為特征是否可行,從而以此為基礎進一步制定相關的營銷和管理策略。為了解決這一矛盾,本文從社會學的角度出發,結合階級理論、狂歡主義理論和微觀權力理論,以及一些實證研究的結果,探討人們吃的食物是否能反映他們是誰。
Revenue arising from the consumption of food occupies a large share of income of a hotel, how to provide proper food to consumers to give consumers a good consumption experience has a positive effect on how the hotel acquire an ideal income (Lin and Mao, 2015). In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary for hotel managers to have a deep understanding of information about customers’ psychology, behavior, motivation in food consumption. Thus some scholars believe that consumers eat food not just to avoid starvation, but to meet their individual preferences and reflect their own tastes or social status, as well as to meet other needs (Bourdieu 1984). On the one hand, some internal and external factors affect consumers' choices of food, on the other hand, consumers’ choices can also be an effective response which reflects their personalities, hobbies, social status, cultures and even ethnic information (Hallam and Baum, 1996). While other academicians hold a contrary view, they think that people’s choice of food can not reflect the information characteristic of individuality (Lin and Mao, 2015). The opposite conclusion might make hotel-related employees confused, as they need to know whether it is feasible for them to understand the characteristics of consumers' food consumption behavior through observing the food that people eat, so as to based on this to further develop relevant marketing and management strategies. To resolve this paradox, this essay is from the perspective of sociology, combined with class theory, carnivalesque theory and micro-power theory, as well as some of the results of empirical research to discuss whether the food people eat can reflect who they are.
2.0 Main body主體
2.1 Social class社會階層
考慮到消費現象的研究,不同的學科視角導致不同的消費研究方式(Williams、Crockett、Harrison和Thomas,2012)。長期以來,經濟學是從個人理性選擇的角度來斷言消費是由個人收入和心理偏好決定的(福柯,1963)。社會學以社會結構為基礎,指出個人總是處于一定的社會結構中,提倡用社會階層來解釋消費現象:
專業人士的主要特點是他們在昂貴產品上的開支比例很高,特別是肉類,尤其是最昂貴的肉類(小牛肉、羊肉、新鮮水果和蔬菜、魚和貝類、奶酪和開胃酒)。
Considering the study of consumption phenomena, different subject visual angles lead to different ways of researches on consumption (Williams, Crockett, Harrison and Thomas, 2012). For a long time, economics is from the perspective of individual rational choice to assert that consumption is decided by personal income and psychological preferences (Foucault, 1963). Sociology is based on social structure to point out that individuals are always in a certain social structure, it advocates explaining consumption phenomena with social class:
“The members of the professionals are mainly distinguished by the high proportion of their spending which goes on expensive products, particularly meat and especially the most expensive meat (veal, lamb, mutton), fresh fruit and vegetables, fish and shellfish, cheese and aperitifs .” 
Bourdieu (1984) considers that the most important elements of social class are the amount and structures of various capitals and social trajectory (Swartz, 2006). According to these three criteria, Bourdieu defines social class. First is the amount of capital. Capital is a concept representing the sum total of economic capital, cultural capital and social capital. Second is the composition of capital. Bourdieu uses the concept of "capital structure" to represent the proportions of different types of capital. People have more economic capital and less cultural capital, or they have more cultural capital and less economic capital, which leads to their entirely different positions in a social class. Third, Bourdieu uses the concept of class trajectory to explain how the total social capital and the proportions that individuals and social groups have change with time-variation. He believes that different classes, different members within a class can not have the same development experience, and therefore, even members of the same class have their own special mark or style in their class habits. Bourdieu is based on the difference of total capital to divide the differentiation between French classes. Bourdieu thinks that there are three different classes in French society, namely, ruling class, middle class and working class, restraining by their class habits, members of different classes have their own unique class natures, they enter fields of different tastes and by choosing different lifestyles to show their class identity, indicating relations and social distance between themselves and the other classes. Members of different classes have different practices, they have different habitus, different tastes, including aesthetic, dietary habits, physical natures, ways of living and so on. Different consumers are different in the choice of consumption patterns. The basic characteristics of upper class emphasize forms more than functions. In eat a meal, they consider the forms of dining behavior: the lights, the music, the service. Lower classes do not consider how to eat, but what to eat, and if they are able to afford, what they are looking for are the most real materials and most affordable food (Hallam and Baum, 1996). Of course, in the process of food consumption, consumers are not entirely passive, in addition to restraining by rules of their own class, their consumption behavior also unconsciously changes the rules. Main consumers of a same class continuously form their own special habits, hobbies, tastes in food consumption process.
2.2 Micro-power theory
Micro-power theory is a theoretical system constructed by a contemporary French thinker named Michel Foucault, he explains micro-power as follows: 
“But the development and generalization of disciplinary mechanisms constituted the other, dark side of these processes. The general juridical form that guaranteed a system of rights that were egalitarian in principle was supported by these tiny, everyday, physical mechanisms, by all those systems of micro-power that are essentially non-egalitarian and asymmetrical that we call the disciplines .” 
He (Foucault, 1975) proposes that micro-power theory has the following two features. First, the power is everyday, tiny and specific. This is his basic judgment for power. He believes that in the whole modern society, power is already immersed in all aspects of life, it can be captured in the smallest place. Second, power is a kind of relation and a kind of network. Traditional power theory takes power as a sort of ability or a sort of resource, it is the property which can be possessed, strived for and transferred. Foucault (1975) claims that power is a kind of relation, this power relation can be considered to be in a flowing and circulated process, and this kind of power relation is not a one-way relation of dominating and being dominated, but forming a looped, interwoven network. Everyone is just a point of power relation, it can be both perpetrators of power and objects of being implemented. Based on micro-power theory, Foucault further notes that in the modern society constraining by public opinion and various means of disciplines, people increasingly have individual character. By concrete and tiny division of work, people from all walks reflect the characteristics of their own personality because of their rules and regulations, professional nature, industry characteristics, ranges of knowledge or dresses. Extending from Foucault's theory, it can be concluded that the food people eat will be affected by their disciplines, careers, ideas, knowledge and many other aspects, so by focusing on what people eat can understand some of their information and characteristics of their personalities.
2.3 Carnivalesque theory
Bakhtin is a world famous scientist, sociologist and critic, semiotician. One of the important contributions of Bakhtin’s in sociological theory is proposing carnivalesque theory. Bakhtin's carnivalesque theory divides the human world and the society into two parts, the first world is the official and serious, hierarchical world. The ruling class has unlimited power, and the civilian population is living a normal, cautious everyday life, they are cautious to and submit to of authority, power, truth, dogma. The second world is a carnival-style living, Bakhtin describes the second world as that, in the carnival world, people's behavior has not been affected by class, property, position, grade, and other factors, so the food that people eat is just their improvised choice, it can be deduced from his theory that he does not believe that the food people eat can reflect who they are.


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